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Cascading training down into the classroom: The need for parallel planning

Cascade models of in-service training are widely considered to be a cost effective means of introducing educational change to large numbers of teachers. Data from 511 teachers completing a cascade training programme that introduced current ideas about and procedures for teaching English to young learners, suggests that the factors determining whether cascade training aims actually reach the classroom are complex. The paper considers implications for cascade project planning, suggesting it may need to be a parallel process, if its goal is to enable teachers to use the skills introduced in training in their classrooms.